Nazi-soviet Invasion of Poland, 1939

The beginning of World War II was in Poland.

[…] I sought to solve the Polish problem in my own way with a kind of punishment expedition, without a declaration of war.

link to source of extract of quote of Hitler

In an age of instant data-gathering, one might think that the historians could have arrived at a consensus for interpreting the main events of the war. In reality, no such consensus exists. 

link to https://www.nybooks.com/articles/1995/05/25/the-misunderstood-victory-in-europe/

link to gulag DOT online – articles english – Poles and Polish citizens in the Gulag Period 1937-1938

The heart of the conflict in Europe was not in the West, but in the East, centered on the mortal rivalry of the Third Reich of Adolf Hitler and the Soviet Union of Joseph Stalin.

link to https://www.nybooks.com/articles/1995/05/25/the-misunderstood-victory-in-europe/

Full text of “Who Started World War Two

Everything I undertake is directed at Russia. If the West is too stupid and too blind to comprehend that, I will be forced to come to an understanding with the Russians, to smash the West, and then, after its defeat, to turn against the Soviet Union.

– Hitler’s words to the League of Nations commissioner for Danzig, Carl Burckhardt, in August 1939. – link

And Hitler replied: “You are mistaken. I knew as early as March 1939 that Roosevelt had determined to bring about a world war, and I knew that the British were cooperating in this, and that Churchill was involved. God knows that I certainly did not want a world war. That’s why I sought to solve the Polish problem in my own way with a kind of punishment expedition, without a declaration of war. After all, there had been thousands of murders of ethnic Germans and 1.2 million ethnic German refugees. What should I have done? I had to act. And for that reason, four weeks after this campaign, I made the most generous offer of peace that any victorious leader could ever have made. Unfortunately, it wasn’t successful.” And then he said: “If I had not acted as I did with regard to the Polish question, to prevent a second world war, by the end of 1942 at the latest we would have experienced what we are now experiencing in 1944.” That’s what he said.

– General Otto Ernst Remer, 1990 interview – link

Period 1939-1944

Gulags

[First: Some of the] Polish Gulag’s prisoners [were] recruited from those, who were the citizens of the Soviet Union. The establishing of the border between Poland and Russia in March 1921 resulted in about [1.5] million Polish people living in Russia/Soviet Union, large majority of whom were the descendants of the citizens of the Polish state before its partitions started in 1772.

link to https://gulag.online/articles/polaci-a-gulag?locale=en

The Treaty Of Riga Redrew The Map.

The Second Polish Republic – link

link to rferl DOT org a treaty of Riga 1921 -disaster Poland Ukraine Belarus Lithuania

In the period between 1939-1944 Poles and Polish citizens with different nationalities were still being imprisoned in forced labor camps. It was the result of the Soviet invasion on Poland which started on September 17th 1939. 

link to https://gulag.online/articles/polaci-a-gulag?locale=en

link to en DOT wikipedia DOT org – wiki – Polish-Soviet War – (14 February 1919 – 18 March 1921) – link to russia’s periphery DOT blogs DOT wm DOT edu – western borderlands general treaty of riga

The Treaty of Riga, signed on March 18, 1921, ended the Polish-Soviet War and set the eastern border of Poland that remained constant throughout the interwar period. The Treaty distributed ethnic Ukrainians and Belorussians between Poland and Soviet Russia, creating tensions among national minorities on both sides of the border.

link to http://russiasperiphery.blogs.wm.edu/western-borderlands/general/treaty-of-riga/ – by by Jenna Brightwell

After more than a century of Partitions between the Austrian, the Prussian, and the Russian imperial powers, Poland re-emerged as a sovereign state at the end of the First World War in Europe in 1917–1918.[1][2][3] The victorious Allies of World War I confirmed the rebirth of Poland in the Treaty of Versailles of June 1919.

link to https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_Polish_Republic

link to kresy family DOT com 3 deportation DOT html – RE: DEPORTATION

The war crimes of the deportations of Polish citizens from the Eastern Borderlands of Poland and of the Katyń massacre of Polish officers [i] were never mentioned at the Nuremberg Trials.

link to https://www.kresyfamily.com/3-deportation.html

Deportations of Polish citizens

Both these war crimes were carried out by Soviet Russia during that period when Germany and Soviet Russia were allies from September 1939 to June 1941.

link to https://www.kresyfamily.com/3-deportation.html

link to en DOT wikipedia DOT org – wiki – Territorial evolution of Poland

Operation Barbarossa

Imprisonments [of] people arrested in Eastern Poland, a part of the state which was occupied by the Soviets [up until] the outbreak of the German-Soviet war on July 22nd 1941. After the Polish state had collapsed there remained about 150 thousand people arrested and remaining in the Soviet captivity. The arrests started immediately after the NKVD entered Polish territory.

link to https://gulag.online/articles/polaci-a-gulag?locale=en

link to justice 4 poland DOT com 2017/12/15 – jewish collaboration with nkvd and soviets

Operation Barbarossa (GermanUnternehmen Barbarossa) also known as the German invasion of the Soviet Union was the code name for the invasion of the Soviet Union by Nazi Germany and some of its Axis allies, which started on Sunday, 22 June 1941, during World War II. The operation put into action Nazi Germany’s ideological goal of conquering the western Soviet Union so as to repopulate it with Germans. The 

link to https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operation_Barbarossa

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Territorial_evolution_of_Poland#/media/File:Territorial-changes-of-Poland-1635-2009-small.gif

MAP 1772 Poland

Poland Borders 1772
Poland Borders 1772

link to archive DOT org – stream/ – Who Started World War Two Who%20Started%20World%20War%20Two_djvu.txt

On the sixtieth anniversary of the mass deportation of hundreds of thousands of Polish citizens to the Gulag To the memory of countless victims of Communist oppression perpetrated by the organs of the Soviet Union and their local collaborators M. T. poświęcam

link to https://doczz.pl/doc/5353/on-the-sixtieth-anniversary

The Battle of Westerplatte was one of the first battles of the German invasion of Poland, marking the start of World War II in Europe.

link to https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Westerplatte

Those infamous border changes

link to from shepherds and shoemakers DOT com – 2017/01/15 those infamous border changes: a crash course in polish history

[…] what many people don’t realize is that Poland didn’t exist as an independent nation from 1795-1918.

Typically, the oldest genealogical records that we find for our Polish ancestors date back to the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, which existed from 1569-1795.

The beginning of the end for the Commonwealth came in 1772, with the first of three partitions which carved up Polish lands among the Russian, Prussian, and Austrian Empires.  The second partition, in which only the Russian and Prussian Empires participated, occurred in 1793.  After the third partition in 1795, among all three empires, Poland vanished from the map […]

link to https://fromshepherdsandshoemakers.com/2017/01/15/those-infamous-border-changes-a-crash-course-in-polish-history/?blogsub=confirming#blog_subscription-4

“The First Partition in 1772 and the Second Partition in 1793 greatly reduced the state’s size and the Commonwealth was partitioned out of existence with the Third Partition in 1795.”

link to wiki article.

The Invasion of Poland (1 September – 6 October 1939), also known as the September campaign (PolishKampania wrześniowa), 1939 defensive war (PolishWojna obronna 1939 roku) and Poland campaign (GermanÜberfall auf Polen, Polenfeldzug), was an attack on the Republic of Poland by Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union which marked the beginning of World War II.

link to https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Invasion_of_Poland

Details about Today’s Featured Image: By Associated Press photographer – link This is photograph HU 106374 from the collections of the Imperial War Museums., Public Domain

On August 23, 1939, Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union entered into a Non-Aggression Pact (the so called Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact) which paved the way for the imminent invasion of Poland. A Secret Protocol to that Pact provided for the partition of Poland, as well as for Soviet domination of the Baltic States and Bessarabia.1 Germany attacked Poland on September 1 st, while the Soviet strike was delayed until September 17th.2 Polish forces continued to fight pitched battles with the Germans until early October 1939 (the last large battle was fought at Kock on October 5th), after which the struggle went underground.

link to https://doczz.pl/doc/5353/on-the-sixtieth-anniversary

Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact

Its clauses provided a written guarantee of peace by each party towards the other and a commitment that declared that neither government would ally itself to or aid an enemy of the other. In addition to the publicly-announced stipulations of non-aggression, the treaty included the Secret Protocol, which defined the borders of Soviet and German spheres of influence across PolandLithuaniaLatviaEstonia and Finland.

link to https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Molotov%E2%80%93Ribbentrop_Pact

Subsequently, the Soviet authorities legalized the excesses committed against Poles in September and October 1939. In March the following year, the Council of People’s Commissars pronounced that Soviet law was in force (in so-called Western Belorussia) only from November 2, 1939, that is, from the moment of the formal incorporation of the seized Polish territory into the Soviet Union. Only crimes committed against the “working people” before that date were punishable. At the same time, it was forbidden to impose criminal sanctions on the “working people” for deeds “provoked by their exploiters and committed in the course of class struggle.” The roles of the victims and culprits were reversed.

link to https://doczz.pl/doc/5353/on-the-sixtieth-anniversary – Marek Wierzbicki, “Białorusini wobec władz sowieckich i Polaków w latach 1939–1941,” in Jan Jerzy Milewski and
Anna Pyżewska, eds., Początek wojny niemiecko-sowieckiej i losy ludności cywilnej (Warsaw: Instytut Pamięci
Narodowej–Komisja Ścigania Zbrodni przeciwko Narodowi Polskiemu, 2003), 26.

link to en DOT wikipedia DOT org – wiki Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth

The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, formally known as the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and, after 1791, the Commonwealth of Poland, was a country and bi-federation[10] of Poland and Lithuania ruled by a common monarch in real union, who was both King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania. It was one of the largest[11][12] and most populous countries of 16th to 17th-century Europe.

link to https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polish%E2%80%93Lithuanian_Commonwealth

MORE Relevant links…

link to https://doczz.pl/doc/5353/on-the-sixtieth-anniversary, Neighbours: On the Eve of the Holocaust – Polish-Jewish Relations In Soviet Occupied Eastern Poland, 1929 – 1941 – Mark Paul Pefina Press

link to en DOT wikipedia DOT org – wiki – Gestapo-NKVD conferences

link to en DOT wikipedia DOT org wiki Collaboration in the German occupied Soviet Union

link to jpost DOT com – diaspora – antisemitism – deciding life or death polish jews and the wartime soviet union dilemma 661671

link to nypost DOT com – 2021/07/05 – yale likens us prisons to soviet union china nazi germany

link to ny books DOT com – – articles – 1995/05/25 – the misunderstood victory in europe

ny books DOT com – articles/1995/05/25 – the misunderstood victory in europe – link

Norman Davies is the author of, among other books, Europe: A HistoryRising 44: The Battle for Warsaw, and, most recently, Vanished Kingdoms: The History of Half-Forgotten Europe.

Books/Audio-books: Roger Moorhouse, Poland 1939 – The outbreak of WWIII – link to Details on the Amazon Website for Audiobooks

For example, Moorhouse discusses at length the various atrocities perpetrated on the Polish people and analyzes the potential motives for such previously unseen levels of barbarity, even by wartime standards. In the case of the Nazis, the virulent brutality was almost entirely race-driven, as most German soldiers looked upon Poles the same way as Jewish people: “dirty,” subhuman, and something to be eradicated. More intriguing still, Moorhouse raises the possibility of pervasive methamphetamine drug use among German soldiers as another factor fueling their zeal for killing. The Soviets, on the other hand, focused their vengeance upon class issues (as is the wont of communists) and sought payback for perceived offenses.

link to https://openlettersreview.com/posts/poland-1939-by-roger-moorhouse – by Peggy Kurkowski holds a BA in History from American Public University and is a copywriter living in Denver, Colorado

link to open letters review DOT com – posts – poland-1939-by-roger-moorhouse

The decision to massacre Polish officers at Katyn (transliterated as Katyń in Polish) was taken concurrently with a conference of high officials of the Gestapo and NKVD convened in Zakopane on February 20, 1940. While the Soviets undertook the extermination of captured Polish officers, the Germans carried out, from March 31, a parallel “Operation AB” aimed at destroying Poland’s elites.

link to https://doczz.pl/doc/5353/on-the-sixtieth-anniversary
Andrzej Leszek Szcześniak, “Katyńska zbrodnia,” in Encyklopedia “Białych Plam” (Radom: Polskie Wydawnictwo
Encyklopedyczne, 2002), vol. 9, 169–170; Sergo Beria, Beria, My Father: Inside Stalin’s Kremlin (London:
Duckworth, 2001), 319 n.39 and n.43.

The Gestapo–NKVD conferences were a series of security police meetings organised in late 1939 and early 1940 by Germany and the Soviet Union, following the invasion of Poland in accordance with the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact.[1] The meetings enabled both parties to pursue specific goals and aims as outlined independently by Hitler and Stalin, with regard to the acquired, formerly Polish territories.[3]

link to https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gestapo%E2%80%93NKVD_conferences

In Survival on the Margins, Eliyana Adler, a professor of history and Jewish studies at Pennsylvania State University, describes journeys that took about 200,000 Polish Jews who were fleeing the Nazis or had been arrested and deported into the interior of the Soviet Union. Drawing on hundreds of firsthand accounts, Adler demonstrates how (in the words of a refugee), “One moment decides a person’s fate. One runs this way, the other that way…. Here it’s bad and there it’s no good.”

link to https://www.jpost.com/diaspora/antisemitism/deciding-life-or-death-polish-jews-and-the-wartime-soviet-union-dilemma-661671

The Nazi-Soviet alliance lasted for over a year and a half, until shortly before Germany turned on its erstwhile ally on June 22, 1941. During this time the Soviet Union was the principal supplier of much needed raw materials for the German war machine which, in the meantime, occupied Denmark, Norway, the Netherlands, Belgium, much of France, and smashed the Western Forces. Communism and Fascism, both of which are based on radical socialism, made natural bed companions.

link to https://doczz.pl/doc/5353/on-the-sixtieth-anniversary –
5 See, for example: Norman Davies, “Nazi-Soviet Pact,” in Dear, The Oxford Companion to World War II 780–82; “German-Soviet Nonaggression Pact,” in The New Encyclopaedia Britannica, 15th edition, Micropaedia, vol. 5: 212; Alexandra Viatteau with Stanislaw Maria Jankowski and Youri Zoria, Staline assassine la Pologne, 1939–1947 (Paris: Éditions du Seuil, 1999), 94.

The Stalin and Molotov lines

During the Russian Civil War, the Red Army created a series of fortified areas, or ukreplinnyje rajony (UR), which were to be used not only for defence but were also to act as staging points for offensive operations. Following the end of the war these defences were extended, creating a front that stretched over 2,000km from the Baltic to the Black Sea, that consisted of more than 3,000 positions from forts to machine gun and antitank positions, emplaced tank turrets, and observation and command positions. By the outbreak of World War II, these defenses – known as the Stalin Line – were largely complete.

link to The Stalin and Molotov lines: Soviet western defences, 1928-41

link to the american conservative DOT com articles – the second world war was not stalins war

link to ihr DOT org – jhr Schoeman DOT html

An Interview With General Otto Ernst Remer

Conducted by Stephanie Schoeman
Translated by Mark Weber

That was a mistake of Hitler’s. Hitler always pursued policies based on ideology. One result was the alliance with Fascist Italy, which ended in the betrayal by Italy. And Hitler always believed in the Nordic-Germanic race and in the Nordic people, which included the English. That’s why he made repeated offers of peace to Britain, which were always brusquely rejected. That’s an important reason why we never occupied Britain, which would have eliminated Britain from the war. But for. ideological reasons, Hitler did not do that, which was certainly a mistake. But, after all, who does not make mistakes?

link to http://www.ihr.org/jhr/v10/v10p108_Schoeman.html
Nazi-soviet Invasion of Poland, 1939

JLegare


Amateur writer, pianist, denizen of Houston and part-time GLBT activist. Email: james.legare.CEO@jameslegare.us -> I would be delighted to hear from you!


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